On This Day in History, July 22

In 1598, William Shakespeare’s play, The Merchant of Venice, was entered into the Stationers’ Register. The Register operated as a form of copyright protection during the Elizabethan era, allowing for writers to pay to have their works protected by the authority provided to them by the Crown. The Register would slowly fall out of favor in the 1700s and full faded away during the 20th Century.

In 1864, the Union won a notable victory in the South when General Sherman defeated General Hood at the Battle of Atlanta. The battle was part of a Union campaign to take control of the facilities around the city, which would end on September 2. This battle and its campaign aided President Lincoln in winning re-election that same year.

In 1976, the final reparation for war crimes payment from Japan to the Philippines is paid. The war crimes in question were committed during the occupation of the Philippines in the Second World War, which began with an invasion hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor and was ended when the Japanese surrendered and the war came to an end.

A Notable Birth

1478 – Philip I (d. 1506) was the son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, and married Joanna, daughter of Spanish monarchs Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille. Through him, the Hapsburg lineage came to power in Spain, thanks to his wife inheriting her mother’s crown.

A Notable Death

1969 – Judy Garland (b. 1922), born Frances Ethel Gumm, began her acting career in childhood by performing in vaudeville with her sisters. She joined the studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in her teenage years, being only sixteen when she was cast for her famous role in The Wizard of Oz. She would continue acting through her lifetime, though her struggling personal life would lead to an early death.

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