On This Day in History, July 23

In 1829, American inventor William Austin Burt patented his invention of the typographer, a device for printing. This invention was the precursor to the typewriter, which would eventually be replaced by computers and word processing applications.

In 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Empire issued an ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The ultimate contained a series of demands being made, including allowing Austrians into the country to find those responsible for the assassination. Serbia agreed to all but one demand, and on July 28th, Austria-Hungary declares war. This event set off the First World War.

In 1992, a Vatican commission concerning church doctrine, under the leadership of Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (future Pope Benedict XVI), determined that the limiting of certain rights of homosexual individuals were not equivalent to other forms of discrimination, primarily being race or gender. This was established on the grounds that homosexuality, in the eyes of the Catholic Church, was a disorder.

A Notable Birth

1925 – Tajuddin Ahmad (d. 1975) was a Bangladeshi freedom fighter and statesmen, aiding in resisting Pakistani incursions in 1971, during which he helped form a government where he served as the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh. He was later arrested and murdered in prison.

A Notable Death

1885 – Ulysses S. Grant (b. 1822), born Hiram Ulysses Grant, was an American general and President. He is best known for his leadership during the Civil War, including victory at Vicksburg, his campaign in Tennessee, and forcing Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House. He would serve as President from 1869 to 1877, and while plagued with scandals and crises, he worked to uphold civil rights in the South.

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