On This Day in History, September 9

In 1488, with the death of her father, Francis II, Anne of Brittany became the sovereign Duchess of that region. Given her father’s wish that she not allow Brittany to become subject to the King of France and terms in the recently signed Treaty of Sablé, her inheritance of the duchy would make her a central figure in a quarrel between the French and the Hapsburgs. Eventually, she would marry the King of France himself, and through their marriage Brittany joined France.

In 1850, the Compromise of 1850 begins the process of reforming Texas’s state borders in exchange for the federal government taking on $10 million of their pre-annexation debt. Those portions of Texas, which they turned over to federal control, include sections of modern Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming. This was one of five acts that were passed as part of the Compromise, delaying the Civil War by a decade and aiding in the dissolution of the Whig Party.

In 1971, the Attica Prison uprising in western New York begins. Over half of the inmates were involved with the initial uprising, which took control of the prison and took 42 members of the prison staff as hostage. They then produced a list of 28 demands, centered upon better conditions for the prisoners and political rights. While most of their demands would be accepted, some—including amnesty for the crimes committed in seizing control of the prisoner—were not. After it was violently retaken, 43 were dead, including ten correctional officers.

A Notable Birth

1906 – Ali Hadi Bara (d. 1971) was a Turkish sculptor. While born in Iran, his family moved to Turkey while he was young. He studied art first in Istanbul, then in Paris, before returning home. He would continue to sculpt and teach through his lifetime.

A Notable Death

1976 – Mao Zedong (b. 1893) was a Chinese communist revolutionary. A Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist in his youth, he was swayed to Marxist-Leninism during his time at Peking University. A founder of the Chinese Communist Party, his organization eventually took power in China following a civil war. His legacy includes the genocidal Great Leap Forward and the vicious Cultural Revolution.

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