In 490 BC, the Greeks—primarily Athenians—defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon, ending the First Persian invasion of Greece. On the advice of an exile Athenian, the Persians landed their forces at the Bay of Marathon in order to reach and punish Athens for their support of the Ionian Revolt. In the battle itself, the Athenian line was able to swiftly make their way to the Persian lines, and after breaking the inferior flanks, forced the Persians back to their ships.
In 1940, the Paleolithic cave paintings of Lascaux were discovered. Marcel Ravidat, only 18 years old, discovered the entrance to the caves where the paintings were found when his dog fell in a hole. He and his friends came back to explore, thinking it was a secret passage into nearby Lascaux Manor. They returned over a week later with a group of scientists. Since then, the cave has been closed to public visits and there’s an ongoing effort to handle a mold infestation.
In 1990, the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, or the Two Plus Four Agreement, was signed. The ‘Two’ parties, East and West Germany, agreed in this treaty that the unified German state would only claim the territory governed by their separate governments. The ‘Four’ parties, being the UK, the US, France, and the Soviet Union, relinquished their occupational rights of Germany, a key component of the early post war years.
A Notable Birth
1931 – Ian Holm (d. 2020) was an English actor. His acting career began with the Royal Shakespeare Company, predating his film appearances. His first major film role was that of Ash in Alien. He won several awards in his lifetime, including BAFTAs and the Tony.
A Notable Death
2003 – Johnny Cash (b. 1932) was an American musician. Raised on gospel music and taught the guitar, he began his career following his time in the Air Force. Throughout his career, he would play across several genres, including his influential work in rock and country.
Note: The Battle of Vienna actually took place on September 12th, not September 11th. Preparations for that battle did occur upon the previous day, however.