In 1648, with the overthrow of Sultan Ibrahim I, his son Mehmet IV succeeded him and ascended to power over the Ottoman Empire. He would rule as Sultan for nearly forty years, the second longest of any Sultan. Under his leadership, the Ottomans would win a series of wars in Europe before the disastrous failure at the Siege of Vienna in 1683. His rule would e ended by being deposed in favor of his brother.
In 1863, General Robert E. Lee sent a letter of resignation to Confederate President Jefferson Davis following his defeat at the Battle of Gettysburg. Davis refused the resignation. Two years later, it would be General Lee who would surrender to General Grant and end the Civil War with a Confederate loss.
In 1967, five Southeast Asian nations agreed to form the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). These nations were Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. At present, ASEAN has ten member states, having added Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia to the organization. They also have strong relations with the larger economics in their part of the world, such as China, India, Japan, and Australia.
A Notable Birth
1879 – Bob Smith (d. 1950) was an American physician and surgeon. His struggle with alcoholism, even during Prohibition, eventually led him to meet Bill Wilson, who along with nurse Sister Ingatia, would work with to found Alcoholics Anonymous.
A Notable Death
2005 – John H. Johnson (b. 1918) was an American businessman and publisher. He started his own publishing business, targeting the African-American community. Their top publications included Ebony and Jet. The business fell into decline shortly after his death and has since sold their major assets.