The existence of an alternate universe has been considered by scientists and physicists for decades. The structure of the universe and quantum physics involved seems to insist that there may just be a realm humans are unaware of. Through complex physics and research, scientists are constantly finding evidence of this universe. We simplified the explanation, so you don’t have to:
First, we should discuss gravity’s relation to a mechanical state-in other words, how an object moves. To find this relationship, we must know the position of the object and the velocity of the object. Once we know those factors, we then use Newton’s equations to predict what action the object will take in the future. For example, if a roller coaster is about to descend from the lift hill on to the first drop, the position of the roller coaster would be at a higher point than it will go as it descends and the speed will increase as such (remember that roller coasters are mostly operated by gravity). Using these factors, we can then understand the wave function of an object, which is how the object spreads out, specifically in its sound waves. Usually, the sound spreads out widely (imagine hearing the roller coaster running on the track). However, there’s a paradox with this method. According to physicist Ethan Siegel, “when measuring the wave function of an object, scientists have only found it at a single point in space, whereas measuring the movement of the object is continuous”. If the objects are moving symmetrically, how is this possible? Perhaps the earliest physicists believed a parralel universe might exist to accommodate for this fact.
Early scientists such as Louis De Broglie were the first to propose the theory that wavelike properties exist in matter. This caused scientist Edward Schrodinger to propose a wave equation which determines the wave function of the object. However, according to Siegel, “It took a third physicist named Max Born to propose a method to actually interpret the wave function. Born suggested that, by squaring the amplitude of an object and square it, you get the probability of an object’s occurrence in the universe”. This sparked a generation of studying parallel universes for two reasons; first, the word “probability” was never heard of at the time and required further investigation; second, scientists wondered how it’s possible that probability could exist when the wave function is definite? After all, wave functions can only exist in objects. This was a groundbreaking discovery and we can thank Broglie, Schrodinger, and Born for our current study of parralel universes.
Schrodinger continued to denounce this theory and created his own experiment in which he placed a cat in a box with a radioactive atom. Schrodinger then tried to magnify the mass of the atom with the macroscopic world. The original prediction was that if radiation was detected, the cat would die and if not, the cat would remain alive. However, at the end of the experiment, the cat was both dead or alive, something that the law of physics does not allow for. According to Siegel, this is because “The state of the cat and the atom apparatus are entangled, leaving the atom in a superposition of being decayed and non-decayed”. How is this possible, however, if the cat and atom are two separate objects? The laws of physics insist that an object can only be determined by it’s position and velocity and the cat and radioactive atom were at two different positions. Schrodinger’s experiment still raises questions today and shows how vast and complex the universe is.
Another example of superposition, or two different objects at the same can be found in the double slit experiment. The experiment works by firing individual electrons at two slits in a screen. What Siegel notes is that “Rather than the sum of electrons entering the slits separately, there is an interference pattern which is an exception to physics laws. In other words, a single electron somehow goes through both slits simultaneously, completely neglecting position and movement of an object”. This further denotes the idea that the momentum of the electrons and object must be the same in that the electrons are moving more rapidly than the momentum. How, then, does the universe maintain this interference in quantum physics. Scientists today still consider this experiment and is the greatest evidence of parallel universes.
It has been an accepted notion that physics laws are concrete and cannot be broken. However, these experiments and observations show that there are, indeed, exceptions and that there must be some force in the universe allowing for these exceptions. Could there truly be a parallel universe or a dimension man is unaware of? Only time (and space!) will tell.