In 587 BC, Nebuchandnezzar II of Neo-Babylon ends the Siege of Jerusalem when the Temple of Solomon is destroyed. Academics for decades worked to determine the legitimacy and date of this specific event, which is highlighted in the Biblical books of Jeremiah and 2 Kings, along with a Neo-Babylonian chronicle of the period.

In 1863, the New York City Draft Riots began. Union federal draft laws for fighting the Civil War enraged predominantly Irish immigrant or Irish-descendant workers, especially due to worries over having to compete with free black people for jobs and the presence of wealthier folk who could pay off the draft. The riots eventually shifted into a race riot and would not be suppressed until July 16th.

In 1977, Somalia engaged Ethiopia in conflict now known as the Ogaden War. It would last for eight months and end with Ethiopian victory thanks to Cuban intervention. The end of this conflict leads Somalia to break ties with the Soviet bloc and leads to the beginning of the Somali Rebellion that would only end in 1991. The beginning date for this conflict is sometimes credited as being on the 12th and not the 13th.

A Notable Birth

1940 – Sir Patrick Stewart is an English actor who begun his career in the Royal Shakespearean Company. In the 1980s, he shifted to American television and film, best known for his roles as Captain Jean-Luc Picard of Star Trek and Professor Xavier of the X-Men. He was knighted in 2010. He will be celebrating his 80th birthday.

A Notable Death

1893 – Young-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horses (b. 1836) was a chief of the Oglala Sioux tribe. He led victories in Red Cloud’s War against the United States and was later involved with the negotiations between Indian Nations and the United States following the Wounded Knee Massacre.

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