In 1260, the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt defeated the Mongol Empire at the Battle of Ain Jalut. While not the first time the Mongols were defeated in a battle, Ain Jalut was the first time they did not immediately respond with a larger force in turn. More importantly, the defeat prevented the Mongols from furthering their influence in the region and marked the greatest extent of their empire. Military treatise from around the time also notes the use of hand cannons by the Mamluks.
In 1838, Frederick Douglass made his escape from slavery. He did so by boarding a northbound train while in Baltimore. He then used a uniform and documents provided to him by Anna Murray, the free black woman he had fallen in love with, to cross the Susquehanna River and enter Delaware. He continued on to Philadelphia by steamboat, and finally to New York City and a safe house owned by an abolitionist. He did all of this within 24 hours.
In 2004, the Beslan school siege in North Ossetia-Alania, an autonomous region of Russia, ended when Russian forces stormed a school. Two days prior, armed Islamic militants had taken a school in Beslan hostage with the purpose of forcing the Russian government to recognize the independence of Chechnya. Instead, soldiers stormed the school following an explosion that allowed some hostages to flee. 334, excluding the militants, died and the event was criticized heavily.
A Notable Birth
2010 – Tanitoluwa Adewumi is a Nigerian-born chess player residing in New York City. He garnered national attention by winning the 2019 K-3 New York State chess championship, having only played for a single year. His family came to the United States for religious asylum, and as of his victory, was living in a refugee shelter. He is turning 10 today.
A Notable Death
1658 – Oliver Cromwell (b. 1599) was an English statesmen and general. Little is known of him until after 40, due to lacking documentation. Converted to puritanism following his first term as a Member of Parliament, he came to side with the Parliamentarians in the English Civil Wars. He was heavily involved as a military commander and eventually named himself Lord Protector.